The pilot and his first officer provided their first account to NTSB investigators Saturday of what unfolded inside the cockpit of US Airways Flight 1549 after it slammed into a flock of birds and lost power in both engines.
Late Saturday the battle-scared airliner was hoisted from the water, carried by five large slings.
Co-pilot Jeff Skiles, who was flying the plane at takeoff, saw the birds coming in perfect formation, and made note of it.
Sullenberger looked up, and in an instant his windscreen was filled with big, dark-brown birds.
"His instinct was to duck," said NTSB board member Kitty Higgins, recounting their interview. Then there was a thump, the smell of burning birds, and silence as both aircraft engines cut out.
The account illustrated how quickly things deteriorated after the bump at 3,000 feet, and the pilots' swift realization that returning to LaGuardia or getting to another airport was impossible.
With both engines out, Higgins said, flight attendants described complete silence in the cabin, "like being in a library." A smoky haze and the odor of burning metal or electronics filled the plane.
The blow had come out of nowhere. The NTSB said radar data confirmed that the aircraft intersected a group of "primary targets," almost certainly birds, as the jet climbed over the Bronx. Those targets had not been on the radar screen of the air traffic controller who approved the departure, Higgins said.
After the bird impact, Sullenberger told investigators he immediately took over flying from his co-pilot and made a series of command decisions.
Returning to LaGuardia, he quickly realized, was out. So was nearby Teterboro Airport, where he had never flown before, and which would require him to take the jet over densely populated northern New Jersey.
"We can't do it," he told air traffic controllers. "We're gonna be in the Hudson."
The co-pilot kept trying to restart the engines, while checking off emergency landing procedures on a three-page list that the crew normally begins at 35,000 feet.
Sullenberger guided the gliding jet over the George Washington Bridge and looked for a place to land.
Pilots are trained to set down near a ship if they have to ditch, so they can be rescued before sinking, and Sullenberger picked a stretch of water near Manhattan's commuter ferry terminals. Rescuers were able to arrive within minutes.
It all happened so fast, the crew never threw the aircraft's "ditch switch," which seals off vents and holes in the fuselage to make it more seaworthy.
After the hard landing, the crew's third flight attendant - the only one in the rear of the aircraft - made the decision not to open the back exits, she told NTSB investigators Saturday, the day she was released from the hospital.
Before she could get the rearmost passengers headed for the front of the plane, one woman managed to open one of the doors a crack, letting water into the cabin. Only once they were by the front exit did the flight attendant feel woozy and realize she had a deep laceration in her leg.
As the details of the river landing emerged Saturday, investigators struggled for most of the day with the logistics of pulling the airliner from the river next to a sea wall in lower Manhattan.
The mood on the shoreline turned festive in the late evening, as a crane successfully hoisted the submerged jet from the water - inching into view the plane's dirty, dented and scraped tail fin, and the words "US Airways" along the body of the plane.
The metal on the bottom of the craft appeared shredded and torn, and in some places it appeared to be shorn off.
After the long work to secure the jet, people shook hands and investigators took snapshots, while police helicopters hovered overhead.
The NTSB said sonar teams may have located the sunken left engine of the plane. Preliminary radar reports identified an object directly below the crash site.
Crews need to remove the cockpit voice and flight-data recorders and find that engine. Divers originally thought both engines were lost, but realized Saturday that one was still attached. The water had been so dark and murky that they couldn't see it.
The conditions were treacherous, with the temperature dipping to 6 degrees and giant chunks of ice forming around the plane by midday. Diverwas actually the first time that I cried since the whole incident started," she said on "The Early Show" on CBS. She also said the family was making plans to attend the inauguration.
She suggested the happy ending was good for the country.
"I think everybody needed some good news, frankly," she said.
Experts say the threat that birds have long posed to aircraft has been exacerbated by two new factors over the past 20 years: Airline engines have been designed to run quieter, meaning that birds can't hear them coming, and many birds living near airports have given up migrating because they find the area hospitable year-round.
Canada geese, one of the most dangerous birds for aircraft, historically migrate not because of cold but a lack of food. Winter weather kills the grass they eat and sources of fresh water freeze over.
But in developed areas, there is often both food and grass year round, found in parks and golf courses.
And there isn't much that be done in the engineering of jet engines to armor them against a strike without hurting their ability to generate thrust.
The most vulnerable part of the engine is the fan, which can be bent or smashed by an ingested bird. Pieces of busted blade then rip through the rest of the engine like shrapnel.
Engines have been fortified so that they can stay intact in the event of such a strike, but they usually cannot be restarted once they are damaged, said Archie Dickey, an associate professor of aviation environmental science at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's campus in Prescott, Ariz.
He said hits hard enough to cause a total failure are rare, only happening two or three times a year worldwide.
"That's extremely rare," Dickey said. "The chance of it hitting both engines, I'd guess it is less than 1 percent."
Most bird strikes happen within five miles of an airport, lower than 1,000 feet, as planes are taking off or landing. Aircraft hit thousands of birds every year, but they usually bounce off harmlessly.
The US Airways flight hit the birds at 3,000 feet, the NTSB says. That caused a total engine failure, and the plane hit the river 3½ minutes later.
"Brace! Brace! Head down!" the flight attendants shouted to the passengers.
Then, they were in the water. Two flight attendants likened it to a hard landing - nothing more. There was one impact, no bounce, then a gradual deceleration.
"Neither one of them realized that they were in the water," Higgins said.
The plane came to a stop. The captain gave a one-word command, "Evacuate."