Authorities say 20-year-old Mamadou Valve is charged with criminal possession of a weapon and menacing.
Police fired at him 18 times near the intersection of Jerome Avenue and Cromwell Avenue just before 3 a.m. on Friday.
Valve was hit mostly in the lower body and rushed to Lincoln Hospital, where he is in critical but stable condition.
The shots rang out after a large crowd of young people - possibly up to 100 - began scuffling. They had just left a party at the nearby Cocoa House club on Edward L Grant Highway.
Several of the members of the crowd were armed with makeshift weapons, including bricks and large tree limbs.
Police officers, responding to reports of a large disorderly crowd, spotted Valve holding what appeared to be a black handgun.
The officers ordered Valve to drop what turned out to be an apparent pellet gun. When he refused, they opened fire.
They fired 18 shots and hit him nine times.
The apparent pellet gun was secured at the scene.
No police officers were injured, although three were taken to the hospital to be evaluated for trauma.