The 24-year-old victim survived, but was listed in critical condition Sunday at a hospital with a bullet in his neck.
Nassau County police say the man was shot just before dawn in front of the brothers' home in Hempstead. The argument started inside and escalated to the street.
One of the suspects, 28-year-old Oneil Meade, is charged with attempted murder, assault and criminal possession of a weapon. His 41-year-old brother, Clive Meade, is charged with tampering with physical evidence.
Authorities did not release the victim's name.