Oleg Davie, 53, also received five years probation.
Isel Pineda died two years ago after undergoing a liposuction.
Prosecutors say Davie never should have performed the procedure because Pineda was a heart transplant patient.
They also say Davie altered her medical records.
He pleaded guilty to reduced charges of criminally negligent homicide and falsifying records after previously facing 15 years in prison for manslaughter.
The reduced plea was offered after the judge expressed concerns over the fact that the medical examiner initially ruled the cause of death to be "undetermined," then changed it to "homicide (physician negligence)" after speaking with Brooklyn prosecutors.