Police said the officers, who were dressed in plain clothes but also wore CPD vests, were conducting a narcotics investigation in Chicago's Homan Square neighborhood around 10 p.m. Monday.
All three officers are part of the 11th District tactical unit with 10-12 years of experience, police said.
Interim Chicago Police Superintendent John Escalante said when the officers walked up to a man and a woman in the 3700-block of West Polk Street to question them, the man ran into a dimly-lit courtyard between two buildings. Police said he pulled out a gun and fired at the officers chasing him. At least one officer fired back, killing the man.
Several officers who were nearby had first aid-kits and bandages. Police said those officers, who had received medical and rescue training, were able to provide preliminary care to the injured officers before paramedics arrived.
The barrage of bullets was enough to startle Coretta Lawrence, who lives nearby.
"I just heard multiple shots and I ran outside, ran out of the house," Lawrence said.
She said she saw a massive police and fire response outside. Ambulances rushed all three officers to Stroger Hospital. Police said their injuries were not life-threatening. The Chicago Tribune reports one officer was shot in the back, one officer was shot in the foot and one officer was shot in the chest area.
"I was able to speak to all three officers this evening. The mayor was here as well. He also spoke to all three officers, as well as their families. I want to thank the Chicago Fire Department for their quick response in getting our officers here safely," Escalante said Monday.
Two of the three officers were released from the hospital Tuesday morning.
Police said a weapon was recovered at the scene. The woman is being questioned by police. There is no word on whether she will face any charges.
West Polk is shut down Tuesday as investigators continue to collect and analyze evidence. Students and voters trying to get to the John Milton Gregory Math and Science Academy, which is a voting location for the Illinois primary, dodged police tape.
The Independent Police Review Authority is investigating the shooting. Escalante said the officers involved will perform administrative duties for 30 days, as part of a new policy.
In a written statement, Mayor Rahm Emanuel said: "Every day the dedicated men and women of the Chicago Police Department put themselves in danger so the rest of us can be safe. Tonight we were reminded of the dangers that our police face, and the bravery that they routinely display as three of our officers were shot in line of duty. The thoughts and prayers of our entire city are with the officers and their families during this difficult time."
Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders addressed the shooting at his late-night rally at Roosevelt University.
"The violence we are seeing. Hundreds of people being killed each year in this city. Mass shootings all over America. Three police officers shot here tonight. We have got to come together and end this outrageous level of violence," Sanders said.