The Mets announced the move Tuesday before a game against the Cubs.
Cabrera initially injured the thumb last month while diving for a grounder and did a stint on the DL to let it heal. He hit .222 with three home runs and six RBIs in 16 games after returning on May 25.
The thumb felt better until last Saturday, when the switch-hitting Cabrera aggravated it with a right-handed swing against Atlanta. Cabrera hit both his home runs from the left side Monday, and has bunted multiple times from the right side since Saturday because "it's a lot of pain when I swing the bat."
Manager Terry Collins anticipates facing six or seven left-handed starting pitchers over the next 11 days, and so he's decided to give Cabrera a rest during that time.
The team had yet to determine Tuesday if Cabrera would get a shot in the thumb. Cabrera expects to return in 10 days.
The DL stint comes after a big game for the infielder, who hit two homers and helped turn four double plays Monday in a 6-1 win.
Yoenis Cespedes was in the lineup for New York on Tuesday after being lifted from Monday's game with a sore left heel. The slugging outfielder returned Saturday after spending six weeks on the disabled list with a strained left hamstring.
Cespedes said after Monday's game that he wasn't concerned because the heel has bothered him for years. Cespedes told Collins he was ready to play when he arrived Tuesday.
Outfielder Michael Conforto was given another day off Tuesday. He was scratched Monday with a stiff back. He took swings during Monday's game, but did not feel 100 percent.
New York recalled infielder T.J. Rivera from Triple-A Las Vegas to fill in for Cabrera, leaving red-hot shortstop prospect Amed Rosario with the 51s. The 21-year-old Rosario entered Tuesday batting .337 with six homers, 43 RBIs and 11 stolen bases. The Mets did not discuss calling up Rosario with Collins, the manager said.