Authorities believe the shooting, which happened Wednesday afternoon on 188th Street in Fresh Meadows, was gang related.
Two other 18-year-old men were struck, and it is believed one of them may have been the intended target.
Authorities say two cars pulled up next to a group of 10 to 12 teens who were walking down the sidewalk, and the four unidentified suspects approached the group of teens and got into a verbal dispute.
Police say one of the suspects then took out a gun and fired several shots into the group before getting back into a dark gray sedan that fled the scene.
The 14-year-old girl was struck in the neck and was rushed to Long Island Jewish Medical Center in critical but stable condition.
She is believed to have been walking in the vicinity and was not part of the group.
The NYPD is holding a meeting Saturday with their top brass to talk about fighting crime, with one unusual element.
"These crime plans, what their ideas are, they're specific to each neighborhood, what gangs are at odds with each other, what's going on, what high school parties are going to happen," former NYPD Chief of Detectives and ABC New contributor Robert Boyce said. "We have to know these things moving forward. So I think that's what this is all about. What's unusual here is the mayor is going to chair it."
Meantime, students at nearby Francis Lewis High School, where two of those shot attended, had to go through metal detectors Thursday and Friday.
Police did not find any guns on Thursday, but they did seize 20 weapons or prohibited items that they confiscated from students, including knives, stun guns and pepper spray.
School safety agents say they believe students brought those items for safety after knowing two of their classmates were shot.
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