Chicago's Martin Havlat had a goal, and set up Kris Versteeg's power-play score in regulation and Seabrook's winner.
Zach Parise scored his 42nd goal of the season, and Paul Martin also scored for the Devils, 0-2-1 in their last three.
Chicago's Nikolai Khabibulin was sharp in blocking 28 shots.
Brodeur made 39 saves, including several close-in stops.
Chicago ended a 12-game winless streak against New Jersey. Since beating the Devils 5-2 at the United Center on Oct. 10, 1998, Chicago had eight regulation losses, two shootout losses and two ties against New Jersey.
The victory kept Chicago in fourth place in the Western Conference, ahead of Vancouver.
The points moved the Atlantic Division-leading Devils eight points ahead of second-place Philadelphia. New Jersey is four points behind Boston for the top spot in the Eastern Conference.
Havlat has a four-game goal streak, with five goals four assists in the span.
Chicago outshot New Jersey 20-14 in the first period, but trailed 2-1 after 20 minutes.
The Blackhawks had five power plays in the first and dominated early, but Brodeur kept it close with several sharp saves.
Versteeg's power-play goal opened the scoring 5:51 in. Left untouched at the left edge of the crease, Versteeg took Havlat's pass, spun and fired a shot over Brodeur's glove.
Parise tied it at 7:23 on a rising shot from the right circle that may have deflected off the stick of Chicago defenseman Aaron Johnson.
Martin gave the Devils a 2-1 lead with 18 seconds left in period. From a goalmouth scramble, Martin converted a rebound after Khabibulin had made saves on Brian Gionta and Dainius Zubrus.
Havlat tied it at 2 with 5:37 left in the second on a low shot from high in the slot with Chicago's Andrew Ladd parked in front of Brodeur.
In the final minutes of the second, Khabibulin made a point-blank stop on Bobby Holik and Brodeur stopped Patrick Sharp after he stickhandled around New Jersey defenseman Bryce Salvador.
Both goalies were alert in the scoreless third. Khabibulin moved quickly to block Travis Zajac's 20-foot wrist shot during a power play midway through the period, then stopped Holik with 5 minutes left.
Notes: New Jersey LW Patrik Elias returned after missing one game, and D Colin White returned after sitting out four, both with lower-body injuries. ... Chicago LW Ben Eager served the third game of a three-game suspension. ... Chicago D Matt Walker sat out his third game with an upper-body injury. ... Referee Dan O'Rourke was hit in the mouth by a puck midway through the second period and left the game. Play continued with referee Marc Joannette. ... Actor Dan Aykroyd dropped the ceremonial first puck.
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