Judge Phyllis Chu was attacked on Water Street at around 9 a.m. Monday morning.
She was walking from the Staten Island Ferry to court at 100 Centre Street when she was punched in the jaw by a suspect on a bicycle.
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Chu was rushed to New York Presbyterian Lower Manhattan, where she is being treated.
It is unclear why Chu was targeted in the random attack.
A spokesman for the city's Office of Court Administration, Lucian Chalfen, said the suspect may have been emotionally disturbed.
The judge had previously heard the Cuba Gooding Jr. groping case.
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